Leona's Doorknob - Columbia: A Journal of Literature & Art No. 56 (2018)

My grandmother Leona Booth lived long and festered. In her forties, she began uttering vague threats that “Jesus will be coming for me soon,” and “You won’t have me to kick around much longer,” and “I’ll never make old bones.” In her seventies, she continuously threatened to stop taking her medications and start taking the bus downtown to buy marijuana for her glaucoma and arthritis. In her eighties, after the death of her lifelong friend Bernice, with whom she made an annual pilgrimage to Reno for gambling, she told me that longevity was God’s way of punishing women. As if the agony and gore of childbirth were insufficient. In her nineties, the last time I saw her alive, she said, “I really could have done without these last ten years.” 

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Wall-E (2008) and the Ecological Footprint of Animation Production

Animation leaves a substantial footprint in the ecological sand, with greenhouse gases and waste products produced from labyrinthine supply chains, at every stage of production. Using Pixar’s Wall-E (2008) as a case study, what follows is an examination of methodologies and considerations in assessing environmental impacts in the preproduction, production, postproduction and dissemination of animated films.

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Before McLaren: Canadian Animation in the Silent Film Era (1910 - 1927)

Though few Canadian animations from the silent era survive, there are four existing films (safely preserved at Library and Archives Canada in Ottawa) made years before the formation of the National Film Board of Canada in 1939, that have much to say about the production and distribution of early animation north of the border.

Situating silent-era Canadian animation within the silent-era Canadian film industry as a whole reveals two essential postwar developments: one, patriotism prompted a flurry of film production in Winnipeg, Montreal and Toronto; and two, the federal and provincial governments established motion picture bureaus to advocate for the industry. Despite these advances, the nascent Canadian film industry, and by extension, the nascent Canadian animation industry, was marginalized within the North American marketplace.

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